Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the LED照明价格骤降30% 大普及时代到来.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
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Fifteen Chinese nationals have been charged with developing a fraud scheme in which they paid imposters to take entrance exams, including the SAT, and gained acceptance to elite American colleges and universities, the US Department of Justice said on Thursday. Conspirators were paid up to $6,000 each time they used counterfeit Chinese passports to trick test administrators into thinking they were the person who would benefit from the test score, a federal grand jury charged.重点单词
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
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Mr Li said the economy’s strength came as a result of the government shunning strong stimulus policies and its push for supply-side reforms.
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The dip for the Caixin gauge, which concentrates on smaller and private manufacturers, stands in contrast to a pickup for China’s official manufacturing PMI, which focuses primarily on large, state-owned enterprises. The divergence may indicate that smaller outfits have been hit harder by pollution curbs and other regulatory tightening than their larger, state-run competitors, which also enjoy privileged access to state-run lenders.
LBS moves back to the top place, thanks in part to the highest salary, at $167,000, and being second best in value-for-money terms. The school is first for international course experience and second for alumni mobility.
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The study is available online.