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中国富豪“花钱指数”涨5.1% 消费品中最爱买房

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 6月房价环比涨幅收窄 上半年房地产市场分化明显 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

中央经济工作会议前瞻:聚焦减税降费

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Chris Washington, played by London-born Daniel Kaluuya, is drawn into the sinister underbelly of a small American community.
感恩节当天,沃尔玛、塔吉特(Target)和Kmart等美国大型零售商都开门营业,以便借假日购物旺季大赚一笔。今年,沃尔玛开始营业的时间甚至比去年早了两个小时。但好市多拒绝加入“黑色星期五狂欢”,感恩节并没有开门营业。首席执行官克雷格杰利内克认为,给员工放一天假比提高公司利润更加重要。
HOW MUCH: $1,975,000
包括加拿大在内的北美地区票房收入达到了111亿美元,同比去年上涨8%,这主要要归功于包括《侏罗纪公园》(本土票房6.52亿美元)、《复仇者联盟:奥创纪元》(4.59亿美元)、《头脑特工队》(3.56亿美元)等几部大卖影片。
温斯顿?丘吉尔(加里?奥德曼饰)刚刚上任英国首相,就面临着一个他生命中最关键的抉择:暗流涌动,是与纳粹德国和谈,还是依旧保持坚定立场,为了国家的理想、自由而战斗。
以下是人们经常用来描述自己的一些句子。
荷兰合作银行表示,预计大豆价格将保持强劲,目前在1蒲式耳10美元上方,同时由于需求稳定上升,预计奶制品价格明年也将上涨。

New construction will provide luxury options for renters with deep pockets, mostly in the boroughs outside Manhattan. In Brooklyn, 6,527 new rental units are expected to hit the rental market next year, nearly twice the 3,802 units anticipated for Manhattan, according to Citi Habitats.
Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg
Major areas of work for 2017
●"Pope Francis Shocks World, Endorses Donald Trump for President, Releases Statement"
Stand: Coca-Cola CEO Muhtar Kent called for immigration reform

Footnotes

  • 聚焦粤港澳大湾区 房企迎新发展机遇
  • China has become the country with the most film screens in the world.

France, one of the most visited countries in the world, ranks No. 9 overall. It is No. 2 in Cultural Influence and No. 6 in Power.
根据电视网的预测数据,奥巴马在大选必争之地的摇摆州俄亥俄州取得了胜利,而这使得他在大选之战中获胜,获得了超过当选总统所需的270张选举人投票,也终结了罗姆尼在一系列的摇摆州混战中燃起的希望。
单词retreat 联想记忆:
Wang, the chairman of Dalian Wanda Group, took the top spot with a personal fortune of $32.1 billion, the report said, despite Ma seeing his wealth surge 41 percent from 2015.
vt. 作 ... 姿
adj. 全部的,全体的,一切在内的

2020年电泳涂料市场将达36.9亿美元

References

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