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北京:天通苑北地下群租治理基本完成 建立长效机制防止群租现象反弹

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 南京:GDP增速全省第一 新房价格没上涨 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

不必改为个人收入调节税

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

确实有人有近乎完美的记性,可以从过去经历中检索出大量信息。只是,即使很多人认为这样的记忆已经很完美,他们有的时候也不能准确清晰地记起一些特定的细节。虽然真正完美的记忆并不存在,但你还是可以拥有近乎完美的记忆力,超越这些记忆达人,去抵抗岁月给你带来的疾病和健忘。
再见,卡西尼号
阿丽莎也微笑地说道:“无可挑剔,一直唱下去,男孩们!”
单词prosperity 联想记忆:
要让Airbnb退市,可能没那么容易。最近,昆尼皮亚克大学(Quinnipiac)开展的一项民意调查表明,56%的受访者认为,应该允许纽约人将房间租给陌生人。“我们不想把房子变成旅馆,但是与此同时,人们有时会想把自己的公寓租出去。”霍尔斯特德管理公司(Halstead Management Company)的总裁保罗·R·戈特塞根(Paul R. Gottsegen)说。该公司打理着纽约市250处住宅物业。
贴一些小便条来激励自己。一个美好的办公环境,还需要一些能够让自己提神的小纸条。
*剧情类最佳客串男演员:汉克?阿兹利亚(Hank Azaria),《清道夫》(Ray Donovan)

此外,有6个地区的GDP增速低于7%,其中东北的辽宁省以负增长垫底。
That was in line with last month’s manufacturing PMIs, which showed an uptick in sector activity,
荷兰合作银行认为,外汇市场波动性也可能会成为影响未来12个月大宗农产品价格的因素,法国、荷兰和德国大选可能会导致欧元贬值。
在本届戛纳电影节上,女性电影制作人以及相关女性话题曾广受关注成为宣传主题。28年来,戛纳首次以女导演拍摄的电影拉开序幕,伊莎贝拉?罗西里尼(Isabella Rossellini)成为“一种关注”单元评审团主席,莎尔玛?海雅克(Salma Hayek)主持讨论会高调探讨女性角色在电影中的意义。可以讨论的话题有许多,但是真的有何改变吗?数字似乎更能说明问题,主竞赛单元的19部入围作品仅有2部来自女性导演。而后发生的“高跟鞋门”,更有.....面对外界对于影展涉嫌性别歧视的负面消息,艺术总监蒂埃里?弗雷莫(Thierry Frémaux)一点儿反应都没。他只是说,戛纳电影节的举办有着及其不公平的高标准,参展影片不能申请其他诸如威尼斯或柏林电影节。这难道是建议人们去“攻击奥斯卡”?
We will move forward with ecological conservation and improvement.

Footnotes

  • 智慧照明概念火爆 专家称五年内市场需求规模超千亿
  • n. 必死的命运,死亡数目,死亡率

Exports fell 6.6 per cent year-on-year in January to Rmb1.14tn, following a 2.3 per cent gain in December. Economists expected a gain of 3.6 per cent. It was the biggest fall in exports since an 8.9 per cent drop in July last year.
Exports fell 6.6 per cent year-on-year in January to Rmb1.14tn, following a 2.3 per cent gain in December. Economists expected a gain of 3.6 per cent. It was the biggest fall in exports since an 8.9 per cent drop in July last year.
Law firms will lead the pack, with 30% expecting to add staff. Paralegals with four to six years' experience are in particular demand, as are attorneys who specialize in "lucrative areas like litigation, health care, bankruptcy, and foreclosure law," the report says.
近几十年来,很少有年份像2014年那样一开始就充满那么多的悲观情绪。对2014年的预测贯穿了一个主题,即这一年看起来与1914年相似得让人害怕。大多数学者的预测都是悲观和令人沮丧的,尤其是对于东亚。然而,虽然发生了许多可怕的事件——从马航MH17航班在乌克兰坠落,到尼日利亚数百女学生被绑架,以及“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(Isis)的崛起——但我们避免了全面的世界大战。现在,2014年已结束,没有重现1914年的悲剧。探究为什么这些学者预测错了(特别是他们认为亚洲存在冲突可能性的想法)或许是明智的。
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charter

钢贸商“寒冬”谋生:转型升级越冬

References

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